WHO MANAGES INTERNET?
This document describes the organizations
involved, in the development, corodination, maintenance of Internet.
and Global Coordination
What we know as the Internet is a loose
association of diverse networks that have agreed to use a set of common
protocols and is not owned by any one group. As a voluntary association
of networks, the closest description to an Internet management group are
the standard setting organizations responsible for setting determining
the protocols that define how networks interconnect. Following are the
major organizations which voluterily coordinate Internet.
Internet Society (ISOC)
The is a nonprofit, nongovernmental
professional-membership organization that coordinates the use of numerous
Internet applications and protocols.
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
It is a technical advisory group for ISOC,
responsible for defining the overall architecture of the Internet and providing
direction for the IETF.
The Internet protocol suite, as defined by
the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF) and its steering group (the IESG), contains definitions
of numerous parameters, such as internet addresses, domain names, protocol
numbers, port numbers, and many others.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA):
Chartered by the ISOC and the Federal Networking
Council and operates out of the University of Southern California, is the
central coordinator for the assignment IP addresses and manages the Root
Domain Name Service. There are inturn three regional bodies that
NOTE: However, this picture will change,
speacially in Norh Americal. The National Telecommunications and Information
Administration of the US Department of Commerce has issued A
Proposal to Improve Technical Management of Internet Names and Addresses
(DRAFT) to internationalize IANA and privatize the process of Registrar
A Registry will be a non-profit
organization that is responsible for maintaining a database of the Top
Level Domains and will have only registrars as their customers. A
Registrar acts as an interface between domain-name holders
and the registry, providing registration and value-added services; submits
to the registry database information and other data (including contact
information) for each of its customers in a single Top Level Domain. Currently,
Network Solutions Inc. (InterNIC) acts as both the exclusive registry and
as the exclusive registrar for .com, .net, .org, and .edu.
Council of Registrars (CORE), uder gTLD-MOU,
will provide the international governance framework in which policies for
the administration and enhancement of the Internet's global Domain Name
System (DNS) are developed and deployed. The Generic Top Level Domain
Memorandum of Understanding (gTLD-MoU) is the international governance
framework in which policies for the administration and enhancement of the
Internet's global Domain Name System (DNS) are developed and deployed.
This includes, inter alia, the addition of new generic Top Level Domains
(gTLDs) to the root of the DNS, selection of new domain name registrars,
and development of equitable dispute resolution mechanisms over conflicts
between parties concerning rights to domain names. These policies are developed
in cooperation with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), who
manages the root of the Domain Name System (DNS) to promote stability and
of Registrars (CORE)
Network Information Centers (NIC)
NICs are national/geographic organizations
that currently performs both Registry and Registrar functions. Excluding
some service fees, addresses are currently distributed free of charge by
most regional Network Information Centers (NICs). In the US, the
government is currently (February, 1998) considering expanding NIC and
domain names.In the United States, there are three Network Information
(Network Solutions, Inc. and AT&T) Network Solutions sponsors Registration
Services, Support Services, and Net Scout Services. AT&T supports Directory
and Database Services. To cover operating expenses, Network Solutions charges
commercial domain name users (.com) a one time $100 fee for a two year
license, and $50 per year thereafter. At this time there is no charge for
non-profit organizations (.org), (.gov)
or 4-year colleges and universities (.edu). Current InterNic policy is
to issue IP-addresses only to Internet Service Providers, not individuals
or organizations. At this time, InterNic is also handling registration
Domain Registration Service at the University of Southern California
(USC-ISI) in Marina del Rey, California, administers the (.us) domain names.
Common Education, Community Colleges and Vocational Technical schools use
the .us domain name. Naming is based on a political geographical hierarchy
with state codes based in US Post Office assignments.
domain registry is located in Marina del Ray, California
There is information concerning how
to obtain a domain name from InterNIC. There is a 1997 proposal before
the Internet Engineering Taskforce to increase the number of top-line domains,
and increase the number of NIC organizations. When the proposal is implemented,
additional names such as .store (for retail operations), .law (for legal
organizations), .per (for personal addresses), .rec (for recreational organizations)
will be available
eXchange a trade organization of commercial internet providers that
also provides the exchange of commercial internet traffic on a peer basis
through a Network Access Point in Santa Clara, CA, and will coordinate
the establishment of Regional Exchange Points.
Service Provider Consortium and the Internet
Communications Action Group are two industry organizations may be of
Internet Service Providers
Focus: End-User Access, Low Cost
An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is the
equivalent to a retail type organization that, in effect, provides an Internet
dial tone. As technology changes, and as consolidation occurs, the
position of an ISP in the market is evolving. The evolving
ISP may provide services in the following areas:
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) -
to - Internet Backbone Interface
Network Management / Outsourcing
Consolidate that IP
packet traffic from lower speed communication channels into higher
speed communication channels that will eventually interconnect with the
Internet Backbone. Source of IP packets are usually either:
Provide an Public Switch Telephone Network
(PSTN) to Internet data interface that end-users utilize by providing a
of Presence (POP) Server which consolidates multiple circuit
switch telephone lines into a single packet
switched communication channel that may also be further consolidated
by Regional Network Providers before being connected to the Internet
Provide a PSTN-to-Internet voice interface
by providing gateway
translation between IP and Telephone Number addresses and by providing
cost allocations that allow the ISP to operate as retail long-distance
and switches as well as local domain name servers that direct IP packet
traffic originating from the end-users through the ISP's local network
to the Internet Backbone.
type services - providing a set of services to large and small businesses
related to the management of networks. Typical commercial services might
Area Network operation, development, design, management and consulting
Private Networks for clients
Connection (56 Kbps, ISDN, or T1) to stand-alone
Web servers, voice communication, and video services.
protection (to isolate public web from private networks), managed/remote
access servers (to allow mobile employees (salespersons) easy access to
Interconnect to the Internet through Regional
Exchange Point (REP), and may uses some form of Multi-Lateral
Peering Agreement (MPLA).
Provide other data and networking services
such as hosting USEnet newsfeeds and listserver functions.
At last count there were around 6,000 local
Internet Service Providers in the United States, most of which were losing
Web site development, design, consulting and
marketing for Internet (publicly accessible), Intranet (internal only)
and Extranet (for vendors and customers) sites.
Training services to provide businesses with
the technical subject matter needed to effectively integrate new technologies
in an organizations operations.
Commerce - On-line Transaction Processing, secure server, Electronic
Data Interchange, Credit Card management for small businesses,
Web Hosting / Security - things such as a
Farm (used on heavily trafficked web sites to balance the load across
several proxy web servers),
Many ISP's are providing value-added services
beyond simple access to the Internet. While the traditional access services
will continue to grow, this section of the market is maturing, meaning
that the cost of service and economies of scale will become increasingly
ISP Sources of Revenue
In billions of dollars.
Source: Forrester Research
Riggs, B (April 28,
1997) Hard Times for the Small ISP, LanTimes. 55-58
Web Hosting & Security
Of interest may be:
Note: It is expected that web page
design activities will migrate toward organizations specializing in
advertising and/or graphic design. See the Boardwatch
Map of North American ISPs (ISPs tend to have a .net e-mail address).
Regional Network Providers
Focus: Network Access and Management,
System Integration, Reliability, and Service
A Regional Network Provider (RNP) operates
a private Wide
Area Network across several Local Access Telephone Areas. The
RNP acts as a client/server system integrator, Value Added Reseller, and/or
a provider of Internet services to an geographic market area.
Service providers that might be considered
to be RNPs in the Oklahoma Area, those with multiple Points of Presence
End-user Internet access to the PSTN is provided
through Points-of-Presence interconnected in several different telephone
Wholesaling / Service type services - providing
products, as well as and maintenance and repair services related to the
equipment used in networks. Typical services of a wholesale / service operation
might include: network planning, ordering equipment, technical support,
system maintenance and repair, and network security.
Area Network, typically using either Frame Relay and/or ATM
architectures on a regional basis.
Long Distance service on a regional basis
Interconnect to the Internet through one or
two Network Access Points (NAP), but typically do not
provide inter-NAP connectivity.
POPs in metropolitan areas of Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and
Arizona. The largest ISP headquartered in Oklahoma, and one of the 20 largest
independent ISPs in North America.
State of Oklahoma system with POPs at higher education institutions and
some major state facilities (governmental and other state associated organizations
A Quasi - Regional Provider is Brightnet,
an Internet Service Provider cooperative whose partners include:
Dobson-McClowd Telephone -- Payne & Logan
Counties, Cheyenne. Fiber to Denver, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Midland, Odessa,
El Paso and Oklahoma City.
Chichasaw Telephone -- Sulphur, North Ardmore
Panhandle Telephone - Guymon, panhandle counties.
Fiber network operator
MBO -- Pattawatomie and Cimmaron counties
Pioneer Cooperative Telephone -- Kingfisher,
Enid, El Reno, North Texas. Fiber network operator
Marketing Information The generation
of commercial mailing lists based on subscribers to a network service is
in great demand by advertising and marketing organizations. The more information
about a subscriber that can be provided (their likes and dislikes, etc.)
the more valuable the information.
Focus: Developing Consumer Demographic
Information for resale
World, Direct Marketing News,
the Smart Business Supersite page on Direct
Mail, and an article titled Direct
Mail and the Dynamics of Response By George Duncan are resources
that may be useful in learning more about this aspect of marketing.
Focus: National/International Interconnection,
Reliability (99.9% availability)
The components of the Internet Backbone include:
Network Service Providers
(NSP) which operate the networks that route TCP/IP
packets that transport data form point to point,
Long Distance Carriers (telephone)
which provide communication channels, and
Network Access Points (NAP)
that provide for the exchange of packets between networks operated by the
Network Service Providers.
Network Service Providers (NSP) - also called
are the organizations providing the foundation
for the backbone of the Internet. The structure of the Internet's backbone
is largely based in the architecture of NSFNET
, as it was previously officially known when it was largely funded
through the National Science Foundation.
A NSP offers National/International interconnecting
Internet services to the wholesale level Regional
Network Providers (RNP) and very large Internet Service
Providers (ISP). through Priority Network Access Points
(NAP). Also linking to the Priority NAP is the Routing Arbiter
(RA), which provides routing information to NAP clients through a host-based
route server. To be considered a NSP, the network must interconnect at
a minimum of three priority NAP's using at least DS3 rates (in 1995 DS1
rates were sufficient), and route both IP
and ISO 8473 (Connectionless-mode Network Layer Protocol - CLNP)
packets. Service level targets from an operational standpoint often include
99.92% availability, or no more than 7 hours/year of unavailable time with
less than 2.25 service outages per year. The mean time to restore service
is 2.5 hours.
Primary National Service Providers - Internet
Primary National Service Providers collectively
operate what is often referred to as the Public Internet Backbone.
Each Primary National Service Provider operates one or more Wide
Area Networks, typically using either Frame Relay and/or ATM
architectures on a national basis. Local ISPs typically use these
Primary National Service Providers as their interface point to the Internet
Primary National Service Providers and
National Internet Service Providers exchange packets at Network
Access Points. Backbone providers are often called "defaultless
cores" because their routers do not use default routing information.
The routers used by a backbone provider use Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
to dynamically learn routes. When the owner of an IP address changes
ISP providers, it announces its new provider to the rest of the workd using
BGP, which causes the world's routers to adjust their routing tables to
account for the change. Most backbone providers will not accept BGP
messages from any but the largest organizaitons, which effectively makes
IP numbers the responsibility of ISPs. Examples
of Primary National Service Providers include:
An integrated telecommunications company that
is currently (February 1998) in the process of acquiring several organizations.
When all companies are acquired, WorldCom will control just under 50% of
the Internet Backbone.
a primary component of the Internet backbone,
employing many of the original developers of the Internet
Global Information Systems) (map)
currently uses Worldcom's ATM service at DS-3
(45 Mbps) rates to haul IP data across the U.S., and has begun its migration
to OC-3 (155 Mbps). Provides service to over 40 countries. Provides services
to ISPs and large corporations.
Wireless Internet Exchange (CWIX) (map)
an international telecommunications company
with extensive interests in Hong Kong, Japan, Europe, North America and
over 50 other countries. Provides services to ISPs and large corporations.
a Phoenix based service provider with an ATM
backbone using DS3 (45 Mbps) and OC3 (155 Mbps) lines
Very High Speed Backbone
Network Service (National Science Foundation) (vBNS)
The National Science Foundation
(NSF) has contracted with MCI, to provide a very high speed link between
the NSF funded supercomputer centers, and a few other sites. It is intended
to always be a network on the leading edge. Initially the vBNS will operate
at OC-3 (155 Mbps) with a planned upgrade to OC-12 (622 Mbps) soon. Its
use is reserved for meritorious research.
The Internet II project is a developmental
and pre- competitive collaborative effort among a number of universities,
federal R&D agencies, and private sector firms to develop a next generation
Internet for research and education. The concept of Internet II was created
in October 1996 by a core group of 34 universities who met in Chicago.
is the point of interconnection and service delivery between one or more
institutional members of the Internet-II development project and one or
more service providers. Internet II will be designed to provide the higher
education community with "new modes of interactive collaboration and distance
learning, the integration of distributed multimedia digital library collections
with academic programs, greater access to expensive specialized research
facilities such as accelerators and supercomputers, and life long scholarly
pursuits facilitated through ready access to learning materials from homes,
offices, or anywhere convenient to the learner." NSF has proposed an expanded
role for its vBNS infrastructure that potentially could attach as many
as 100 sites nationally to the current OC-3 backbone and could provide
a deployment platform for emerging applications in support of research
and collaboration. (also see University
of California at Santa Barbara and University
National Internet Service Providers
A National Internet Service Provider operates
a private Wide Area Network on a national basis. These organizations
exchange packets at Network Access Points.
Examples of National Internet Service Providers include:
Note: As of 1996, all the above, except
AGIS, are providing ISP (retail) service in more than one metropolitan
uses ATM and T3 lines. A national ISP with
Points of Presence in over 300 US cities, plus Canada and the United Kingdom
Frame Relay network using Cascade ATM switches.
A national ISP with over 225 Points of Presence in the US with ISPs in
Britain, Netherlands, Japan, South Korea, Canada, and other places. Also
has major responsibilities for the Commercial Internet Exchange
of WorldCom) map
Cascade switches, Cisco routers, IP, FDDI.
Has a joint marketing agreement with GTE. Has over 500 Points of Presence
with ISPs in Britain and Germany.
a subsidiary of GTE, one of the original nationwide
Long Distance Carrier
Long Distance Carriers provide a national
network of communication channels for the Internet as well as other long
distance voice and data communication needs. In general, the NAP contracts
with a Long Distance Carrier for the channels needed for their backbone.
The primary land line carriers with a national scope include:
Systems (Galaxy IV Satellite) provides national internet coverage by
The service, primarily for downloading large files, also requires land-line
connection to the Internet for coordination.
ATT a hybrid
Asynchronous Transmission Mode (ATM) and Frame Relay system providing DS-1
(1.544 Mbps) and DS-3 (45 Mbps) circuits.
a primarily fiber network providing an Internet Backbone DS-1 (1.544 Mbps)
and DS-3 (45 Mbps) circuits using Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
technology to connect routers.
(Provide links to an On-Line customer handbook.)
WorldCom) -- a fiber optic and digital
microwave, and satellite network providing Internet backbone DS-1 and DS-3
MCI - As
of July 1996, the major portion of the MCI network used DS-3 (45 Mbps)
and OC-3 (155 Mbps) circuits. MCI is under contract from the National Science
Foundation (NSF) to operate a state-of-the-art Very High
Speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS) that connects the NSF super computer
and national research centers using OC-12 circuits (622 Mbps). MCI expects
to deploy a public network with 10 ATM
(Asynchronous Transmission Mode) switches connected with OC-12 circuits
in loops including Washington DC, Atlanta, Dallas, Los Angeles, San Francisco,
Chicago, and West Orange, NJ (NYC) - to split the loop, Dallas and Chicago
will also be directly connected. DS-3 Frame Relays will provide support
to other areas.
Network Access Points (NAP)
Provides a mechanism for NSP's
and ISP's to interconnect. It is made up of equipment provided by the NAP
Manager (Sprint), the RA, and collocated NSP/ISP equipment along with services
provided by the local NAP Manager and the RA. The only restrictions on
traffic flow are those resulting from bilateral agreements between the
NSP's and ISP's or from legal restrictions. ISP's and NSP's must have at
least one bilateral arrangement with another ISP/NSP to attach to the NAP.
There are six Priority
Network Access Points, and several other non-priority NAPs in the United
States are provided by:
Note: There are listings of World
Wide Exchanges. The National Laboratory
for Applied Network Research contains additional information.
Routing Arbiter (RA)
The organization, under award from NSF, which
provides routing information at each NAP. They intend to provide customized
routing information at each NAP that will reflect all bilateral agreements
between that NAP's clients.
Regional Exchange Point
Provides a mechanism for ISPs and other REPs
to interconnect with at least one NSP. Typically does not provide inter-NAP
connectivity, but does provide some form of inter-ISP connectivity through
a Multi-Lateral Peering Agreement (MPLA)..