**Artificial Intelligence**

**Study Guide #2**

**Chapter 7: Logical Agents**

Know the definitions to the following terms: knowledge base, tell and ask functions, declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, entailment, inference, propositional logic functions (negation, conjunction, disjunction, implication, biconditional), logical equivalence, validity, satisfiability, Modus Ponens, and-elimination, DeMorgan's Law, resolution, Horn Clause, forward chaining, backward chaining. Know and understand logic and reasoning in Wumpus World. Know how deductive reasoning is evaluated (sound, complete, and monotonic). Be able to convert a logical sentence to conjunctive normal form.

**Chapter 8: First Order Logic**

Know the components and usage of the syntax in first order logic (predicates, constants, functions, variables, connectives, quantifiers). Be able to construct first order logical sentences of descriptive sentences (similar to the problem 8.6 in our text book). Know the definition and use of unification. Know the use and properties of universal and existential quantification. Know the definition of the frame axiom and the frame problem. Know the examples of first order logic used in our text and notes.

**Chapter 9: Inference in First Order Logic**

Be able to use inference with quantifiers. Universal instantiation, existential instantiation. Know the definition and use of unification (again). Know the form of the generalized Modus Ponens. Know the use of forward and backward chaining. Know and understand the "Col. West is a criminal example". Know the definition and understand the examples from class regarding resolution.

**Prolog**

There will be a short question regarding the Prolog programming language. Study your homework and the examples in the notes.